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Nginx+Apache筹建
网友分享于:Jun 12, 2018 10:47:58 PM    来源: IT货架   
Nginx+Apache搭建
前言:谈到Linux下的web生产环境,大家就会想到apache这个开源服务器软件.apache可以整合大多数应用,比如jsp,php,cgi,python等等,但是apache过于臃肿以及对静态文件响应过于缓慢让很多使用者感到头疼.而nginx作为新崛起的服务器软件,在很多方面超出apache,定位也很明确:高性能的 HTTP 和反向代理服务器.因而,本篇主要讲的是nginx作为前端,apache作为后端的应用环境搭建过程.

为什么不使用nginx+php(fastcgi)作为生产环境?我提出我的看法.

   1. php(fastcgi)不够稳定,经常出现502错误,生成相对复杂的页面没有优势,反而会使php-cgi进程变为僵尸进程.
   2. 安全性,多用户多站点权限问题.php(fastcgi)在应对多用户多站点往往捉襟见肘,不易于实施.
   3. 整合其他开发语言,apache表现得游刃有余.资源利用恰到好处.

为什么采用nginx做前端,apache作为后端的方案?nginx在处理静态内容上较apache是几倍或几十倍的差异,因而放在前面过滤静态内容是最为恰当的.同时nginx也是一个负载均衡器,低资源消耗,高性能转发是它的特点.经过nginx在前面的过滤,后端的apache需要处理的内容相对就比较少了.只需负责处理动态内容就可以了.在性能与稳定性的权衡下,使用nginx+apache搭配会让它们在各自擅长的领域展现自身的价值.

本教程以CentOS 5.4 32bit为环境.其他Linux发行版本暂未测试.nginx,php,apache,mysql,pureftpd均为最新稳定版.

获取操作系统源更新.

    yum update

    yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ bison patch unzip mlocate flex wget automake autoconf gd cpp gettext readline-devel libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel freetype freetype-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel zlib zlib-devel glibc glibc-devel glib2 glib2-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel ncurses ncurses-devel curl curl-devel e2fsprogs e2fsprogs-devel libidn libidn-devel openldap openldap-devel openldap-clients openldap-servers nss_ldap expat-devel libtool libtool-ltdl-devel

如果系统默认安装了apache,请先卸载.执行:

    yum remove httpd

下载最新稳定版的程序源码包,以下都是到官方网站或sourceforge下载的源码包.

    cd /usr/local/src

    wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/MySQL-5.1/mysql-5.1.45.tar.gz/from/http://mysql.he.net/

    wget http://www.apache.org/dist/httpd/httpd-2.2.15.tar.gz

    wget http://stderr.net/apache/rpaf/download/mod_rpaf-0.6.tar.gz

    wget http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz

    wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/mcrypt/files/Libmcrypt/2.5.8/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.bz2/download

    wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/mcrypt/files/MCrypt/2.6.8/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz/download

    wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/mhash/files/mhash/0.9.9.9/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.bz2/download

    wget http://www.php.net/get/php-5.2.13.tar.gz/from/this/mirror

    wget http://php-fpm.org/downloads/php-5.2.13-fpm-0.5.13.diff.gz

    wget http://www.lancs.ac.uk/~steveb/patches/php-mail-header-patch/php5-mail-header.patch

    wget http://pecl.php.net/get/memcache-2.2.5.tgz

    wget http://bart.eaccelerator.net/source/0.9.6/eaccelerator-0.9.6.tar.bz2

    wget ftp://ftp.imagemagick.org/pub/ImageMagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz

    wget http://pecl.php.net/get/imagick-2.3.0.tgz

    wget http://download.suhosin.org/suhosin-0.9.29.tgz

    wget http://downloads2.ioncube.com/loader_downloads/ioncube_loaders_lin_x86.tar.gz

    wget http://downloads.zend.com/optimizer/3.3.9/ZendOptimizer-3.3.9-linux-glibc23-i386.tar.gz

    wget http://monkey.org/~provos/libevent-1.4.13-stable.tar.gz

    wget http://memcached.googlecode.com/files/memcached-1.4.4.tar.gz

    wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/pcre/files/pcre/8.01/pcre-8.01.tar.gz/download

    wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-0.7.65.tar.gz

    wget http://download.pureftpd.org/pub/pure-ftpd/releases/pure-ftpd-1.0.28.tar.gz

一.安装Mysql.安装最新稳定版5.1.45版本,并没有采用最新开发版.

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -zxf mysql-5.1.45.tar.gz

    cd mysql-5.1.45

    ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler --enable-thread-safe-client --with-extra-charsets=all --with-big-tables --with-readline --with-ssl --with-embedded-server --enable-local-infile --with-plugins=partition,innodb_plugin,myisam,myisammrg

    make && make install

    cd ../

    groupadd mysql -g 27

    useradd mysql -u 27 -g 27 -c "MySQL Server" -d /var/lib/mysql -M

    cp /usr/local/mysql/share/mysql/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf

    /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql

    chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var

    chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/.

    cp /usr/local/mysql/share/mysql/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql

    chmod u+x /etc/init.d/mysql

    chkconfig --level 345 mysql on

    echo "/usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql" >> /etc/ld.so.conf

    echo "/usr/local/lib" >>/etc/ld.so.conf

    ldconfig

    ln -s /usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql /usr/lib/mysql

    ln -s /usr/local/mysql/include/mysql /usr/include/mysql

    ln -s /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config /usr/bin/mysql_config

    service mysql start

    /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u root password root

    service mysql restart

    service mysql stop

二.编译安装apache(httpd).apache的执行用户为nobody.

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -zxf httpd-2.2.15.tar.gz

    cd httpd-2.2.15

    ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apache --enable-headers --enable-mime-magic --enable-proxy --enable-rewrite --enable-ssl --enable-suexec --disable-userdir --with-included-apr --with-mpm=prefork --with-ssl=/usr --with-suexec-caller=nobody --with-suexec-docroot=/ --with-suexec-gidmin=100 --with-suexec-logfile=/usr/local/apache/logs/suexec_log --with-suexec-uidmin=100 --with-suexec-userdir=public_html

    make

    make install

    mkdir /usr/local/apache/domlogs

    cp /usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl /etc/init.d/httpd

1.编辑/etc/init.d/httpd,在首行#!/bin/sh下添加:

    # Startup script for the Apache Web Server

    #

    # chkconfig: - 85 15

    # description: Apache is a World Wide Web server. It is used to serve \

    # HTML files and CGI.

    # processname: httpd

    # pidfile: /usr/local/apache/logs/httpd.pid

    # config: /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf

    ulimit -n 1024

    ulimit -n 4096

    ulimit -n 8192

    ulimit -n 16384

    ulimit -n 32768

    ulimit -n 65535

保存退出.

2.配置apache配置参数文件httpd.conf,位于/usr/local/apache/conf/目录

    cd /usr/local/apache/conf/

    mv httpd.conf httpd.conf.bak

    mkdir vhosts

    vi httpd.conf

输入以下内容:

PidFile logs/httpd.pid
LockFile logs/accept.lock
ServerRoot "/usr/local/apache"
Listen 0.0.0.0:81
User nobody
Group nobody
ServerAdmin admin@evlit.com
ServerName host.evlit.com

Timeout 300
KeepAlive Off
MaxKeepAliveRequests 100
KeepAliveTimeout 5
UseCanonicalName Off
AccessFileName .htaccess
TraceEnable Off
ServerTokens ProductOnly
FileETag None
ServerSignature Off
HostnameLookups Off

# LoadModule perl_module modules/mod_perl.so

DocumentRoot "/usr/local/apache/htdocs"

<Directory "/">
Options ExecCGI FollowSymLinks Includes IncludesNOEXEC -Indexes -MultiViews SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
AllowOverride All
</Directory>

<Directory "/usr/local/apache/htdocs">
Options Includes -Indexes FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride None
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
</Directory>

DefaultType text/plain
RewriteEngine on
AddType text/html .shtml
AddHandler cgi-script .cgi .pl .plx .ppl .perl
AddHandler server-parsed .shtml
<IfModule mime_module>

    TypesConfig conf/mime.types
    AddType application/perl .pl .plx .ppl .perl
    AddType application/x-img .img
    AddType application/x-httpd-php .php .php3 .php4 .php5 .php6
    AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps
    AddType application/cgi .cgi
    AddType text/x-sql .sql
    AddType text/x-log .log
    AddType text/x-config .cnf conf
    AddType text/x-registry .reg
    AddType application/x-compress .Z
    AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz
    AddType text/html .shtml
    AddType application/x-tar .tgz
    AddType application/rar .rar
    AddType application/x-compressed .rar
    AddType application/x-rar .rar
    AddType application/x-rar-compressed .rar
    AddType text/vnd.wap.wml .wml
    AddType image/vnd.wap.wbmp .wbmp
    AddType text/vnd.wap.wmlscript .wmls
    AddType application/vnd.wap.wmlc .wmlc
    AddType application/vnd.wap.wmlscriptc .wmlsc
</IfModule>

<IfModule dir_module>
DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm index.shtml index.php index.perl index.pl index.cgi
</IfModule>

<Files ~ "^error_log$">
Order allow,deny
Deny from all

Satisfy All
</Files>

<FilesMatch "^\.ht">
Order allow,deny
Deny from all
Satisfy All
</FilesMatch>

ErrorLog "logs/error_log"
LogLevel warn

<IfModule log_config_module>
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b" common

<IfModule logio_module>

LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\" %I %O" combinedio
</IfModule>
CustomLog "logs/access_log" common
</IfModule>

<IfModule alias_module>
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "/usr/local/apache/cgi-bin/"
</IfModule>

<Directory "/usr/local/apache/cgi-bin">
AllowOverride None
Options None
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
</Directory>

<IfModule mpm_prefork_module>
StartServers          3
MinSpareServers       3
MaxSpareServers       5
MaxClients          150
MaxRequestsPerChild   1024
</IfModule>

<IfModule mod_headers.c>
<FilesMatch "\.(html|htm|shtml)$">

Header set Cache-Control "max-age=3600, must-revalidate"
</FilesMatch>
</IfModule>

ReadmeName README.html
HeaderName HEADER.html

IndexIgnore .??* *~ *# HEADER* README* RCS CVS *,v *,t

Include conf/extra/httpd-languages.conf

<Location /server-status>
SetHandler server-status
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from 127.0.0.1
</Location>
ExtendedStatus On

<Location /server-info>
SetHandler server-info
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from 127.0.0.1

</Location>

<IfModule ssl_module>
Listen 0.0.0.0:443
AddType application/x-x509-ca-cert .crt
AddType application/x-pkcs7-crl .crl
SSLCipherSuite ALL:!ADH:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:-LOW:-SSLv2:-EXP
SSLPassPhraseDialog  builtin
SSLSessionCache         dbm:/usr/local/apache/logs/ssl_scache
SSLSessionCacheTimeout  300
SSLMutex  file:/usr/local/apache/logs/ssl_mutex
SSLRandomSeed startup builtin
SSLRandomSeed connect builtin
</IfModule>

#Vhosts
NameVirtualHost 127.0.0.1:81
NameVirtualHost *

<VirtualHost 127.0.0.1:81 *>
ServerName host.evlit.com
DocumentRoot /var/www/html
ServerAdmin admin@evlit.com
</VirtualHost>

Include conf/vhosts/*

上述出现的127.0.0.1请改为你本机公网IP.
三.编译安装php(mod_php)

1.编译安装相关支持库

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -zxf libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz

    cd libiconv-1.13.1/

    ./configure

    make

    make install

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -jxf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.bz2

    cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/

    ./configure

    make

    make install

    /sbin/ldconfig

    cd libltdl/

    ./configure --enable-ltdl-install

    make

    make install

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -jxf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.bz2

    cd mhash-0.9.9.9/

    ./configure

    make

    make install

    ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la

    ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so

    ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4

    ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8

    ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a

    ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la

    ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so

    ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2

    ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -zxf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz

    cd mcrypt-2.6.8/

    /sbin/ldconfig

    ./configure

    make

    make install

2.编译php,这里我们为php打入补丁.有助于防止邮件发送被滥用(多用户)以及在邮件中提供有价值的信息.补丁介绍信息请点击:http://www.lancs.ac.uk/~steveb/patches/php-mail-header-patch/

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -zxf php-5.2.13.tar.gz

    patch -d php-5.2.13 -p1 < php5-mail-header.patch

    cd php-5.2.13

    ./configure --prefix=/usr/local --with-config-file-path=/etc --with-apxs2=/usr/local/apache/bin/apxs --enable-bcmath --enable-calendar --enable-exif --enable-ftp --enable-gd-native-ttf --enable-libxml --enable-magic-quotes --enable-mbstring --enable-pdo=shared --enable-soap --enable-sockets --enable-zip --with-bz2 --with-curl --with-curlwrappers --with-freetype-dir --with-gd --with-gettext --with-jpeg-dir --with-kerberos --with-libexpat-dir=/usr --with-libxml-dir=/usr --with-mcrypt=/usr --with-mhash=/usr --with-mysql=/usr --with-mysql-sock=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock --with-mysqli=/usr/bin/mysql_config --with-openssl=/usr --with-openssl-dir=/usr --with-pdo-mysql=shared --with-pdo-sqlite=shared --with-png-dir=/usr --with-sqlite=shared --with-ttf --with-xmlrpc --with-zlib -with-zlib-dir=/usr

    make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS='-liconv'

    make install

    cp php.ini-dist /etc/php.ini

3.安装php扩展模块

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -zxf memcache-2.2.5.tgz

    cd memcache-2.2.5/

    phpize

    ./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/bin/php-config --with-zlib-dir --enable-memcache

    make

    make install

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -jxf eaccelerator-0.9.6.tar.bz2

    cd eaccelerator-0.9.6/

    phpize

    ./configure --enable-eaccelerator=shared --with-php-config=/usr/local/bin/php-config

    make

    make install

    mkdir -p /tmp/eaccelerator

    chmod 777 /tmp/eaccelerator

    echo "mkdir -p /tmp/eaccelerator" >> /etc/rc.local

    echo "chmod 777 /tmp/eaccelerator" >> /etc/rc.local

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -zxf ImageMagick.tar.gz

    cd ImageMagick-*

    ./configure

    make

    make install

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -zxf imagick-2.3.0.tgz

    cd imagick-2.3.0/

    phpize

    ./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/bin/php-config

    make

    make install

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -zxf suhosin-0.9.29.tgz

    cd suhosin-0.9.29

    phpize

    ./configure

    make

    make install

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -zxf ioncube_loaders_lin_x86.tar.gz

    cd ioncube

    mkdir /usr/local/ioncube

    mv ioncube_loader_lin_5.2.so /usr/local/ioncube/

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -zxf ZendOptimizer-3.3.9-linux-glibc23-i386.tar.gz

    mkdir -p /usr/local/Zend/lib/Optimizer-3.3.9/php-5.2.x

    cp ZendOptimizer-3.3.9-linux-glibc23-i386/data/5_2_x_comp/ZendOptimizer.so /usr/local/Zend/lib/Optimizer-3.3.9/php-5.2.x/ZendOptimizer.so

3.1.修改php.ini.

查找/etc/php.ini中的extension_dir = "./".将其修改为extension_dir = "/usr/local/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"

查找;include_path = ".:/php/includes",删除前面的分号,并修改为include_path = ".:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php"

跳到最后一行,然后添加以下内容:

    extension = "memcache.so"

    extension = "pdo.so"

    extension = "pdo_mysql.so"

    extension = "pdo_sqlite.so"

    extension = "sqlite.so"

    extension = "eaccelerator.so"

    eaccelerator.shm_size = 32

    eaccelerator.cache_dir = "/tmp/eaccelerator"

    eaccelerator.enable = 1

    eaccelerator.optimizer = 0

    eaccelerator.debug = 0

    eaccelerator.name_space = ""

    eaccelerator.check_mtime = 1

    eaccelerator.filter = ""

    eaccelerator.shm_max = 0

    eaccelerator.shm_ttl = 7200

    eaccelerator.shm_prune_period = 7200

    eaccelerator.shm_only = 1

    eaccelerator.compress = 0

    eaccelerator.compress_level = 9

    eaccelerator.keys = shm

    eaccelerator.sessions = shm

    eaccelerator.content = shm

    zend_extension = "/usr/local/ioncube/ioncube_loader_lin_5.2.so"

    zend_extension = "/usr/local/Zend/lib/Optimizer-3.3.9/php-5.2.x/ZendOptimizer.so"

4,安装Memcached(可选)

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -xzf libevent-1.4.13-stable.tar.gz

    cd libevent-1.4.13-stable

    ./configure

    make

    make install

    ln -s /usr/local/lib/libevent-1.4.so.2 /usr/lib

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -xzf memcached-1.4.4.tar.gz

    cd memcached-1.4.4

    ./configure --with-libevent=/usr

    make

    make install

基本使用方法:

启动:/usr/local/bin/memcached -d -m 64 -p 11211 -u nobody -l localhost

关闭:killall -9 memcached
四.安装nginx

1.安装pcre库

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -zxf pcre-8.01.tar.gz

    cd pcre-8.01

    ./configure

    make

    make install

2.安装nginx

    cd /usr/local/src

    tar -zxf nginx-0.7.65.tar.gz

    cd nginx-0.7.65

    ./configure --user=nobody --group=nobody --prefix=/usr/local/nginx --pid-path=/usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx.pid --error-log-path=/usr/local/nginx/logs/error.log --http-log-path=/usr/local/nginx/logs/access.log --http-client-body-temp-path=/tmp/nginx_client --http-proxy-temp-path=/tmp/nginx_proxy --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/tmp/nginx_fastcgi --with-http_stub_status_module

    make

    make install

2.1.添加init控制脚本

#! /bin/sh
ulimit -n 65535
# Description: Startup script for nginx
# chkconfig: 2345 55 25

PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
DESC="nginx daemon"
NAME=nginx
DAEMON=/usr/local/nginx/sbin/$NAME
CONFIGFILE=/usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
PIDFILE=/usr/local/nginx/logs/$NAME.pid
SCRIPTNAME=/etc/init.d/$NAME

set -e
[ -x "$DAEMON" ] || exit 0

do_start() {
$DAEMON -c $CONFIGFILE || echo -n "nginx already running"
}

do_stop() {
kill -QUIT `cat $PIDFILE` || echo -n "nginx not running"
}

do_reload() {
kill -HUP `cat $PIDFILE` || echo -n "nginx can't reload"
}

case "$1" in
start)
echo -n "Starting $DESC: $NAME"
do_start
echo "."
/etc/init.d/httpd start
;;
stop)
echo -n "Stopping $DESC: $NAME"
do_stop
echo "."
/etc/init.d/httpd stop
;;
reload)
echo -n "Reloading $DESC configuration..."
do_reload
echo "."
/etc/init.d/httpd restart
;;
restart)
echo -n "Restarting $DESC: $NAME"
do_stop
sleep 1
do_start
echo "."
/etc/init.d/httpd restart
;;
*)
echo "Usage: $SCRIPTNAME {start|stop|reload|restart}" >&2
exit 3
;;
esac

exit 0

保存退出,给该文件赋予执行权限并设置开机启动

    chmod u+x /etc/init.d/nginx

    chkconfig --level 345 nginx on

2.2.修改nginx配置文件,位于:/usr/local/nginx/conf/目录

    cd /usr/local/nginx/conf/

    mv nginx.conf nginx.conf.bak

    mkdir vhosts

    vi nginx.conf

输入以下内容:

worker_processes  1;
worker_rlimit_nofile  65535;
events {
worker_connections  65535;
use epoll;
}
error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/error.log info;
http {
include    mime.types;
default_type  application/octet-stream;
sendfile on;
tcp_nopush on;
tcp_nodelay on;
keepalive_timeout  10;
gzip on;
gzip_http_version 1.0;
gzip_min_length  1100;
gzip_comp_level  3;
gzip_buffers  4 32k;
gzip_types    text/plain text/xml text/css application/x-javascript application/xml application/xml+rss text/javascript application/atom+xml;
ignore_invalid_headers on;
client_header_timeout  3m;
client_body_timeout 3m;
send_timeout     3m;
connection_pool_size  256;
server_names_hash_max_size 2048;
server_names_hash_bucket_size 256;
client_header_buffer_size 256k;
large_client_header_buffers 4 256k;
request_pool_size  32k;
output_buffers   4 64k;
postpone_output  1460;
open_file_cache max=1000 inactive=300s;
open_file_cache_valid    600s;
open_file_cache_min_uses 2;
open_file_cache_errors   off;
include "/usr/local/nginx/conf/vhosts/*.conf";
server {
listen 80;
server_name _;
access_log off;
location ~* \.(ftpquota|htaccess|asp|aspx|jsp|asa|mdb)$ {
deny  all;
}
location / {
client_max_body_size    100m;
client_body_buffer_size 128k;
proxy_send_timeout   300;
proxy_read_timeout   300;
proxy_buffer_size    4k;
proxy_buffers     16 32k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 64k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 64k;
proxy_connect_timeout 30s;
proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:81/;
proxy_set_header   Host   $host;
proxy_set_header   X-Real-IP  $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header   X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
}
}
}

保存退出.
五.为apache安装rpaf模块,该模块用于apache做后端时获取访客真实的IP.

1.使用apxs安装模块.这里要使用此前apache编译安装后的apxs

    cd /usr/local/src/

    tar -zxf mod_rpaf-0.6.tar.gz

    cd mod_rpaf-0.6

    /usr/local/apache/bin/apxs -i -c -n mod_rpaf-2.0.so mod_rpaf-2.0.c

2.编辑/usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf,添加模块参数,查找LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so,在下方添加:

    LoadModule rpaf_module modules/mod_rpaf-2.0.so

    #Mod_rpaf settings

    RPAFenable On

    RPAFproxy_ips 127.0.0.1 [your_ips]

    RPAFsethostname On

    RPAFheader X-Forwarded-For

上面出现的[your_ips]请修改为你本机所监听web服务的ip.多个IP用空格空开.
六.安装ftp服务器:pure-ftpd

1.编译安装

    cd /usr/local/src/

    tar -zxf pure-ftpd-1.0.28.tar.gz

    cd pure-ftpd-1.0.28

    ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/pureftpd --with-language=simplified-chinese --with-everything

    make

    make install

    chmod u+x configuration-file/pure-config.pl

    cp configuration-file/pure-config.pl /usr/local/pureftpd/sbin/

    mkdir /usr/local/pureftpd/etc/

    cp configuration-file/pure-ftpd.conf /usr/local/pureftpd/etc/

    ln -s /usr/local/pureftpd/bin/pure-pw /usr/local/bin/

2.配置pure-ftpd,这里采用PureDB的验证方式.

    vi /usr/local/pureftpd/etc/pure-ftpd.conf

查找 PureDB /etc/pureftpd.pdb 取消前面的#号并设置成PureDB/usr/local/pureftpd/etc/pureftpd.pdb

查找 PassivePortRange 取消前面的#号

其他参数根据需要进行修改

3.添加自启动.这里不创建init脚本.直接放在/etc/rc.local启动即可

    echo "/usr/local/pureftpd/sbin/pure-config.pl /usr/local/pureftpd/etc/pure-ftpd.conf --daemonize" > /etc/rc.local

至此.所有安装工作结束.
如何使用这套系统
一,做好必要的安全工作

设置用户家目录/home/user,相关配置参数文件,以及访问日志等目录的权限.

    chmod 711 /home

    chmod 711 /usr/local/pureftpd

    chmod 711 /usr/local/apache/conf/vhosts

    chmod 711 /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhosts

    chmod 711 /usr/local/apache/domlogs

    chmod 711 /usr/local/apache/logs

二,如何创建用户

创建用户分两个步骤.第一步创建系统用户.该命令直接创建用户家目录.第二步创建ftp用户.创建该用户依赖系统用户的创建.步骤如下(以创建用户名为admin为例):

    useradd admin -m -s /sbin/nologin

    pure-pw useradd admin -u admin -g admin -d /home/admin -m[第一次执行不可用]

    pure-pw mkdb[仅限第一次执行]

注意.通过上述方法安装的ftp服务器在第一次创建用户的时候不可以在pure-pw useradd ...后直接添加参数-m更新ftp用户数据库.需要分两步执行.以后可以直接在创建用户时在后面添加参数-m,执行之后会提示让你输入密码.需要重复输入两次.
三.如何绑定域名

由于采用前后端操作.因此需要修改两个服务器软件的虚拟主机参数.实例如下(以admin.com为例,用户目录承接上文的/home/admin):

1.创建nginx虚拟主机参数

    cd /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhosts

    touch admin.com.conf

    vi admin.com.conf

    输入以下内容:

server {
error_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/admin.com-error_log warn;
listen 127.0.0.1:80;
server_name admin.com www.admin.com;
access_log off;
location ~* \.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|ico|wmv|avi|asf|asx|mpg|mpeg \
|mp4|pls|mp3|mid|wav|swf|flv|html|htm|txt|js|css|exe|zip|rar \
|gz|tgz|bz2|uha|7z|doc|docx|xls|xlsx|pdf|iso)$ {
access_log /usr/local/apache/domlogs/admin.com combined;
root /home/admin/public_html;
expires 7d;
try_files $uri @backend;
}
error_page 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 500 501 502 503 504 @backend;
location @backend {
internal;
client_max_body_size    100m;
client_body_buffer_size 128k;
proxy_send_timeout   300;
proxy_read_timeout   300;
proxy_buffer_size    4k;
proxy_buffers     16 32k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 64k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 64k;
proxy_connect_timeout 30s;
proxy_redirect http://admin.com:81 http://admin.com;
proxy_redirect http://www.admin.com:81 http://www.admin.com;
proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:81;
proxy_set_header   Host   $host;
proxy_set_header   X-Real-IP  $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header   X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
}
location ~* \.(ftpquota|htaccess|asp|aspx|jsp|asa|mdb)$ {
deny  all;
}
location / {
client_max_body_size    100m;
client_body_buffer_size 128k;
proxy_send_timeout   300;
proxy_read_timeout   300;
proxy_buffer_size    4k;
proxy_buffers     16 32k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 64k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 64k;
proxy_connect_timeout 30s;
proxy_redirect http://admin.com:81 http://admin.com;
proxy_redirect http://www.admin.com:81 http://www.admin.com;
proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:81/;
proxy_set_header   Host   $host;
proxy_set_header   X-Real-IP  $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header   X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
}
}

保存退出,注意将上述出现的127.0.0.1替换本机监听web服务的IP

2.创建apache虚拟主机配置文件

    cd /usr/local/apache/conf/vhosts

    touch admin.com.conf

    vi admin.com.conf

    输入以下内容:

<VirtualHost 127.0.0.1:81>

ServerName admin.com
ServerAlias www.admin.com
DocumentRoot /home/admin/public_html
ServerAdmin admin@evlit.com
UseCanonicalName Off
CustomLog /usr/local/apache/domlogs/admin.com combined
php_admin_value open_basedir "/home/admin:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php:/tmp"
<IfModule !mod_disable_suexec.c>
SuexecUserGroup admin admin
</IfModule>
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /home/admin/public_html/cgi-bin/
</VirtualHost>

保存退出,注意将上述出现的127.0.0.1替换本机监听web服务的IP.
四.如何管理MySQL数据库

1.下载最新版PhpMyAdmin源码包

    mkdir -p /var/www/html

    chmod -R 711 /var/www

    cd /var/www/html

    wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/phpmyadmin/files%2FphpMyAdmin%2F3.3.0%2FphpMyAdmin-3.3.0-all-languages.tar.bz2/download

    tar -jxf phpMyAdmin-3.3.0-all-languages.tar.bz2

    mv phpMyAdmin-3.3.0-all-languages phpmyadmin

2.增加apache配置,编辑httpd.conf,转到最后一行

    cd /usr/local/apache/conf

    vi httpd.conf /* shift+g转到最后一行 */

    #Managed Tools

    <VirtualHost 127.0.0.1:81 *>

    ServerName localhost

    ServerAlias pma.*

    DocumentRoot /var/www/html/phpmyadmin

    ServerAdmin admin@localhost

    UseCanonicalName Off

    </VirtualHost>

同样,修改上述出现的127.0.0.1为你提供web服务的IP.重启apache后.我们打开绑定到服务器IP的pma.yourdomain.com即可访问到phpmyadmin.第一次使用.需要进行配置.具体配置请善用Google.

其他没有照顾到的地方自行添加即可.如perl,sendmail等.

为方便管理员添加用户及绑定域名.我编写了一个脚本.

    wget http://icodex.org/vhosts

    chmod u+x vhosts

    ./vhosts



http://icodex.org/2010/03/nginx-apache-guide/

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