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为何Redis要比Memcached好用
网友分享于:Jun 12, 2018 11:45:09 PM    来源: IT货架   

Memcached还是Redis? 在现代高性能Web应用中这一直是个争论不休的话题。 在基于关系型数据库的Web应用需要提高性能时,使用缓存是绝大多数架构师的第一选择,自然,Memcached和Redis通常是优先选择。

共同特征

  • 都是 key-value 形式的内存数据库
  • 都是NoSQL家族的数据管理解决方案
  • 都基于同样的key-value 数据模型
  • 所有数据全部放在内存中(这也是适用于缓存的原因)
  • 性能得分不分伯仲,包括数据吞吐量和延迟等指标
  • 都是成熟的、广受开源项目欢迎的 key-value存储系统

Memcached 最初在2003年由 Brad Fitzpatrick 为 LiveJournal网站开发。然后又用C语言重写了一遍(初版为Perl实现),并开放给公众使用,从此成为现代Web系统开发的基石。 当前Memcached的发展方向是改进稳定性和性能优化,而不是添加新功能特性。

Redis 于2009年由 Salvatore Sanfilippo 创建, 直到今天 Sanfilippo 依然是Redis的唯一开发者和代码维护者。 Redis也被称为 "Memcached增强版(Memcached on steroids)", 这一点也不令人惊讶, 因为 Redis 有一部分就是在 Memcached 的经验总结之上构建的的。 Redis比Memcached具有更多的功能特性,这使得它更灵活,更强大也更复杂。

Memcached和Redis被众多企业以及大量生产系统所采用, 支持各种语言开发的客户端,有丰富的SDK。 事实上, 在上点规模的互联网Web开发语言中,基本上没有不支持Memcached或Redis的。

为什么Memcached和Redis如此流行? 不仅是其具有超高的性能,还因为相对来说他们都非常简单。 对程序员来说上手使用Memcached或Redis相当容易。 安装和设置并集成到系统中可能只需要几分钟时间。 因此花费一点点时间和精力就能立刻大幅提升系统性能 —— 通常是提升一个数量级。 一个简洁的解决方案却能获得巨大的性能收益: 这酸爽简直超乎你的想象。

Memcached 适用场景

因为Redis是新兴解决方案,提供了更多的功能特性,比起Memcached来说, Redis一般都是更好的选择。 在两个特定场景下Memcached可能是更好的选择。

第一种是很细碎的静态数据,如HTML代码片段。 Memcached的内存管理不像Redis那么复杂,所以性能更高一些,原因是Memcached 的元数据metadata更小,相对来说额外开销就很少。 Memcached唯一支持的数据类型是字符串 String,非常适合缓存只读数据,因为字符串不需要额外的处理。

第二个场景,是Memcached比Redis更容易水平扩展。 原因在于它的设计和和功能很简单,Memcached更容易扩展。 消息显示, Redis在即将到来的3.0版(阅读CA版本发布笔记)将内置可靠的集群支持[但一直在跳票]。

Redis 用武之地

除非受环境制约(如遗留系统),或者业务符合上面的2种情况,否则你应该优先选择Redis。 使用Redis作为缓存,通过调优缓存内容,系统效率能获得极其提升。

很明显Redis的优势在于缓存管理。 缓存通过某种数据回收机制(data eviction mechanism)在必要时将旧数据从内存中删除,为新数据腾出空间。 Memcached的数据回收机制使用LRU(Least Recently Used,最近最少使用)算法,同时优先清除与新数据大小差不多的旧数据块。 相比之下,Redis允许细粒度控制过期缓存,有6种不同的策略可供选择。 Redis还采用了一些更复杂的内存管理方法和回收策略。

Redis对缓存的对象提供更大的灵活性。 而Memcached限制 key 为250字节,限制 value 为1 MB,且只能通过纯文本String通信. Redis的 key 和 value 大小限制都是512 MB,是二进制安全的【即不丢数据,与编码无关】。 Redis提供6种数据类型,使缓存以及管理缓存变得更加智能和方便,为应用程序开发者打开了一个无限可能的世界。

相比将对象序列化后通过字符串存储, Redis 通过 Hash来存储一个对象的字段和值,并可以通过单个key来管理它们。

看看用Memcached更新一个对象需要干什么:

  1. 获取整个字符串
  2. 反序列化为对象
  3. 修改其中的值
  4. 再次序列化该对象
  5. 在缓存中将整个字符串替换为新字符串

并且每次更新都要干这些破事。

而使用Redis Hash的方式, 可以大幅度降低资源消耗并提高性能。 Redis的其他数据类型,如List 或者 Set,可用来实现更复杂的缓存管理模式。

Redis 的另一个重大优点是其存储的数据是不透明的,这意味着在服务器端可以直接操纵这些数据。 160多个命令中的大部分都可以用来进行数据操作, 所以通过服务端脚本调用进行数据处理成为现实。 这些内置命令和用户脚本可以让你直接灵活地处理数据任务,而无需通过网络将数据传输给另一个系统进行处理。

Redis提供了可选/可调整的数据持久化, 目的是为了在 崩溃/重启后可以快速加载缓存。 虽然我们一般认为缓存中的数据是不稳定,瞬时的, 但在缓存系统中将数据持久化到磁盘还是很有价值的。 在重启后立即加载预热的方式耗时很短, 而且减轻了主数据库系统的开销。

最 后, Redis提供主从复制(replication)。 Replication 可用于实现高可用的cache系统,允许某些服务器宕机的情况下也能提供不间断的服务。 假设要求在某台缓存服务器崩溃时, 只有少部分用户和程序在短时间内受影响, 大多数情况下就需要有一个行之有效的解决方案,来保证缓存内容和服务的可用性。

当今开源软件一直在提供最佳的实用技术方案。 需要使用缓存来提高应用系统性能时,Redis和Memcached是最佳的产品级解决方案。 但考虑到其丰富的功能和先进的设计,绝大多数时候Redis都应该是你的第一选择。

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