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第六条---消除过期的对象的引用
网友分享于:Jan 1, 1970 8:00:00 AM    来源: IT货架   

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看下面的关于栈的程序:

package com.duo.month10day25;

import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.EmptyStackException;

public class StackTest {

	private Object[] elements;
	private int size = 0;

	private static final int DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY = 16;

	public StackTest() {
		elements = new Object[DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY];
	}

	public void push(Object e) {
		ensureCapacity();
		elements[size++] = e;
	}

	public Object pop() {
		if (size == 0) {
			throw new EmptyStackException();
		}
		return elements[--size];
	}

	private void ensureCapacity() {
		if (elements.length == size) {
			elements = Arrays.copyOf(elements, 2 * size + 1);
		}
	}

}

进入栈的源代码查看下Java是如何实现栈的:

/*
 * Copyright (c) 1994, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * ORACLE PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms.
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 */

package java.util;

/**
 * The <code>Stack</code> class represents a last-in-first-out
 * (LIFO) stack of objects. It extends class <tt>Vector</tt> with five
 * operations that allow a vector to be treated as a stack. The usual
 * <tt>push</tt> and <tt>pop</tt> operations are provided, as well as a
 * method to <tt>peek</tt> at the top item on the stack, a method to test
 * for whether the stack is <tt>empty</tt>, and a method to <tt>search</tt>
 * the stack for an item and discover how far it is from the top.
 * <p>
 * When a stack is first created, it contains no items.
 *
 * <p>A more complete and consistent set of LIFO stack operations is
 * provided by the {@link Deque} interface and its implementations, which
 * should be used in preference to this class.  For example:
 * <pre>   {@code
 *   Deque<Integer> stack = new ArrayDeque<Integer>();}</pre>
 *
 * @author  Jonathan Payne
 * @since   JDK1.0
 */
public
class Stack<E> extends Vector<E> {
    /**
     * Creates an empty Stack.
     */
    public Stack() {
    }

    /**
     * Pushes an item onto the top of this stack. This has exactly
     * the same effect as:
     * <blockquote><pre>
     * addElement(item)</pre></blockquote>
     *
     * @param   item   the item to be pushed onto this stack.
     * @return  the <code>item</code> argument.
     * @see     java.util.Vector#addElement
     */
    public E push(E item) {
        addElement(item);

        return item;
    }

    /**
     * Removes the object at the top of this stack and returns that
     * object as the value of this function.
     *
     * @return  The object at the top of this stack (the last item
     *          of the <tt>Vector</tt> object).
     * @throws  EmptyStackException  if this stack is empty.
     */
    public synchronized E pop() {
        E       obj;
        int     len = size();

        obj = peek();
        removeElementAt(len - 1);

        return obj;
    }

    /**
     * Looks at the object at the top of this stack without removing it
     * from the stack.
     *
     * @return  the object at the top of this stack (the last item
     *          of the <tt>Vector</tt> object).
     * @throws  EmptyStackException  if this stack is empty.
     */
    public synchronized E peek() {
        int     len = size();

        if (len == 0)
            throw new EmptyStackException();
        return elementAt(len - 1);
    }

    /**
     * Tests if this stack is empty.
     *
     * @return  <code>true</code> if and only if this stack contains
     *          no items; <code>false</code> otherwise.
     */
    public boolean empty() {
        return size() == 0;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the 1-based position where an object is on this stack.
     * If the object <tt>o</tt> occurs as an item in this stack, this
     * method returns the distance from the top of the stack of the
     * occurrence nearest the top of the stack; the topmost item on the
     * stack is considered to be at distance <tt>1</tt>. The <tt>equals</tt>
     * method is used to compare <tt>o</tt> to the
     * items in this stack.
     *
     * @param   o   the desired object.
     * @return  the 1-based position from the top of the stack where
     *          the object is located; the return value <code>-1</code>
     *          indicates that the object is not on the stack.
     */
    public synchronized int search(Object o) {
        int i = lastIndexOf(o);

        if (i >= 0) {
            return size() - i;
        }
        return -1;
    }

    /** use serialVersionUID from JDK 1.0.2 for interoperability */
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1224463164541339165L;
}

pop方法里面有个:removeElementAt这样的方法,再点击开来查看:


 /**
     * Deletes the component at the specified index. Each component in
     * this vector with an index greater or equal to the specified
     * {@code index} is shifted downward to have an index one
     * smaller than the value it had previously. The size of this vector
     * is decreased by {@code 1}.
     *
     * <p>The index must be a value greater than or equal to {@code 0}
     * and less than the current size of the vector.
     *
     * <p>This method is identical in functionality to the {@link #remove(int)}
     * method (which is part of the {@link List} interface).  Note that the
     * {@code remove} method returns the old value that was stored at the
     * specified position.
     *
     * @param      index   the index of the object to remove
     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if the index is out of range
     *         ({@code index < 0 || index >= size()})
     */
    public synchronized void removeElementAt(int index) {
        modCount++;
        if (index >= elementCount) {
            throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(index + " >= " +
                                                     elementCount);
        }
        else if (index < 0) {
            throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(index);
        }
        int j = elementCount - index - 1;
        if (j > 0) {
            System.arraycopy(elementData, index + 1, elementData, index, j);
        }
        elementCount--;
        elementData[elementCount] = null; /* to let gc do its work */
    }

注意最后一行代码:

 elementData[elementCount] = null; /* to let gc do its work */

看他的注释,而我们前面的代码有这样的代码吗?

1,  如果一个栈先是增长,然后再收缩,那么在栈中弹出来的对象将不会被当做垃圾回收,即使使用栈的程序不再引用这些对象,它们也不会被回收,因为,在栈的内部保存了对象的过期引用(obsolete reference),过期引用指的就是永远不会再被解除的引用。

2,  stack中解决过期引用的方法就是在把对象推出栈的时候,设置栈为null

3,  自行管理内存的类都有可能出现内存溢出问题。

4,  缓存也是具有内存溢出问题

5,  还有就是监听器和其他回调

6,  在缓存中,只要外部仍然有对象的引用,那么请使用WeakHashMap来代表缓存,这样就能管理内存。

7,  同理监听器和回调。保存成WeakHashMap中的键。




第六条---消除过期的对象的引用

标签:des   style   blog   io   os   ar   使用   java   for   

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